Health information

How to avoid colds, mosquitoes and other dangers in summer

Nothing can compare with summer holidays by the sea or in the fresh air in the mountains. But such a seemingly perfect holiday can conceal some health risks. These are heat or sunstroke, intestinal infections, burns, insect bites, various injuries and even a cold. All this can happen to everyone and pretty spoil the impression of the rest. Nevertheless, there are many ways to avoid trouble during the summer holidays.

Sunburn

This is the first and most common nuisance that happens with almost all holidaymakers. Yes, most of us are not so often able to afford to bask in the sun during the warm season, and finally catching the beach, try to use every minute for sunbathing. And this is the most common mistake of holidaymakers. As a result, a person brings from a holiday not a beautiful even tan, but sunburn.

The sun's rays are certainly beneficial to our health, as they are a natural source of vitamin D. But to get only the benefits from the sun, you only need to sunbathe in the morning (up to 10-11 hours) and after dinner (after 16-17 hours). At this time, the risk of getting burned is minimal. It is necessary to use a sunscreen with a protection factor of at least 15 SPF. The tool should be applied no later than 30 minutes before sunbathing. In addition, it is necessary to apply a layer of cream after each swim or every 3-4 hours of tanning.

By the way, many consider a sunburn a temporary problem, as after a few days the redness and burning sensation disappears. But researchers are not so optimistic in their statements: every burn increases the risk of getting skin cancer. According to the American Skin Cancer Foundation, if in childhood or adolescence only burns sun before the blisters once, the risk of developing melanoma doubles.

If a sunburn did occur, then it should be understood that it will take time to treat it. To relieve discomfort, apply cold compresses with the addition of aloe juice to burnt places. It is also useful to take the drug from the group of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. If the skin is very red and blistered, there is an increase in body temperature, a severe headache, nausea, chills and confusion, there should be an immediate medical attention.

Stab wounds

In the summer, both children and adults love to be barefoot for a while. Orthopedists say that such exercises are very useful for the feet. But walking barefoot is not always safe. In poorly studied areas there is a risk of treading on a shard, rusty nail or other sharp objects. To walk without shoes brought benefits, they should choose only clean shores or meadows.

But what to do if an adult or a child injured his foot in the summer? Puncture wounds, as a rule, do not cause severe bleeding. It is usually sufficient to simply treat the site of injury with an antiseptic and stick with adhesive tape. If there is a fragment in the wound, it should be removed with sterilized tweezers (process with alcohol or boil in water for at least 5 minutes). The splinter should be removed slowly, from the same angle as it is sitting in the wound. But if a fragment has hit the eye or a rusty nail has been stuck in the foot, you should not be treated on your own. In such cases, only a doctor can provide proper medical care.

Burn from poisonous plants

For many, walking barefoot through juicy fresh greens is a great pleasure. Still would! Modern man is a "child of concrete" and it is not often the opportunity to enjoy "contact" with nature. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand where you can run barefoot, and on what terrain it is better to resist such entertainment. The fact is that there are plants, contact with which leaves a burn on the skin. And now we mean not nettle at all. It just does not provide any threat.

One of the most common poisonous plants in our region is hogweed. In favorable conditions, it can grow a few meters in height, but as long as the plant is small, then it is quite possible not to notice it among other herbs.

Contact with parsquim for a long time will leave a mark in the form of blisters. And if you plan to spend a vacation in the Americas, then there is an even more dangerous plant waiting for tourists - poison ivy.

The best way to prevent rashes and burns is to avoid contact with poisonous plants. If the reaction did happen, it is necessary to show the patient to the doctor as soon as possible. Until then, it is important to wash the damaged area with thick suds to remove poisonous juice and to protect the skin from contact with the sun (for at least 2 days). Also, the injury site can be treated with alcohol or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then treated with panthenol or another anti-burn agent.

Insect bites

Who does not like summer evening gatherings around the campfire. But mosquitoes! How to protect yourself from them? In addition, in summer there remains the risk of becoming a “victim” of wasps, bees, hornets and other insects.

Nowadays there are different substances-sprays, the fragrance of which repels insects. It is very easy to use them: it is enough to spray a small amount of the substance on the body and neither mosquitoes nor other insects will come close to you. From improvised means to repel mosquitoes you can apply a few drops of cedar, eucalyptus, juniper or clove oil. It is even easier to defend against bees. They seldom attack first, and if they fly off, they usually have sweet aromas, therefore, going to nature, refuse perfumes.

If it so happened that a bee, wasp or another insect stung, then as soon as possible it is necessary to take an antihistamine - to relieve the symptoms of an allergic reaction. In addition, the place where the bee stung, should be rinsed with cold water, and to remove the swelling, you need to apply a cold compress. When bees or wasps bite, you can put a paste of 3 parts of baking soda and 1 part of water on the damaged area. Such a compress hold at least 15-20 minutes.

Tick ​​bites are unsafe. They are the easiest to "pick up" in the forest or in the park. Ticks cling to clothing-free areas of the body. That is why experts advise to go hiking in long trousers, clothes with sleeves and in closed shoes. The danger of ticks is that they suffer many diseases, including fatal ones.

The most well-known is Lyme disease, the complication of which is meningitis or partial paralysis. In addition to it, ticks can infect with viral encephalitis, Crimean hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, borreles, rickettsiosis and other diseases.

Having found a tick on the body, it is important to remove it as soon as possible, treat the bite with an antiseptic and take antiallergic. It is best to remove the insect with tweezers with rotating movements (counterclockwise, as if twisting the screw). It is very important that his head does not remain under the skin. If you could not pull out the whole tick at once, you can use a disinfected needle (remove it as a splinter) or go to the hospital.

If you are going to rest in exotic countries, then it will not be out of place to get vaccinations. If in our latitudes all danger from mosquito bites is itching, redness and slight flushing of the skin, in countries with a tropical climate insects are carriers of malaria, Zika virus and other dangerous diseases.

Jellyfish

Jellyfish are not aggressive and do not attack people, but casual contact with its tentacles may darken the rest. Therefore, if you know that you have to rest in an area full of jellyfish, take care of the availability of suitable shoes for swimming. Especially for children. Remember, jellyfish are different. Some do not pose a danger and after contact with them there remains only a slight discomfort. The poison of others can cause a strong allergic reaction. You can not know what kind of jellyfish are at risk to face on vacation, so safety rules should always be observed.

Sometimes you can hear that if a jellyfish stings, then the injury site is useful to process with urine. This is nothing more than a stupid delusion. Instead, immediately rinse the damaged area with seawater, and even better with lemon juice. Do not use for these purposes fresh water, as it contributes to an even faster absorption of the poisonous substance into the blood. Then, it is useful to immerse the damaged part of the body for an hour and a half in hot water and take an antihistamine.

Heatstroke

Heat stroke occurs due to severe overheating of the body (not necessarily under the direct sun). This condition occurs much less frequently than sunburn, but it is no less dangerous. During heat stroke, the body heats up to 38-40 degrees and cannot cool down by itself, since it loses the ability to sweat. To avoid heat stroke, you should try to spend more time in the cool and drink plenty of fluids. Being on vacation, you should not go on excursions, walks or to the beach during peak times of heat.

If you have to walk in hot weather, you need to choose the right clothes. It is good if it will be lightweight loose clothing made from natural materials, as well as a headdress that protects the head from overheating.

Signs of heat stroke include dizziness, nausea, fever, headache, dry skin, and accelerated heart rate. If after a walk a person has any of these symptoms, give him a drink, free from excess clothing, cover the body with wet cold compresses and call an ambulance. Remember that overheating of the body can cause serious problems in the kidneys, brain, heart and muscles.

Lightning strike

In the summer, thunderstorms are common, and many people like to watch a dark sky during lightning thunderstorms. This phenomenon looks incredible, but nevertheless it is deadly.

One could not speak about this danger of the summer season, since the chance of becoming a victim of lightning is about 1 to 300,000. But there is still such a danger. In most cases, the consequence of injury is death. The survivors are severe burns, memory loss, severe headaches, nausea, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, paralysis, and many other disorders.

The first rule: in order to avoid danger, it is necessary to wait out thunder indoors. Remember, if you hear the sound of thunder, it means that there is a lightning somewhere. The speed of its movement (from flash to strike) is no more than 30 seconds. During this time, lightning flies a distance of more than 9 kilometers. If it so happened that during a thunderstorm a person found himself in an open space, and there is no shelter nearby, it is necessary to adhere to several rules that can save lives.

First, no movement. Running or walking fast during a thunderstorm increases the risk of falling victim to lightning. Secondly, it is better not to stand, but to sit down and press your head to your knees (lightning usually hits the highest point). Thirdly, stay as far away from water bodies (think physics: water conducts electricity well). Fourthly, during a thunderstorm, you should definitely turn off your mobile (rescuers tell about cases when an incoming call was the cause of a lightning hit the phone).

In addition, free yourself from all metal objects: an umbrella, a watch, chains, earrings, etc., attract a discharge to themselves.

If a thunderstorm caught while resting in the forest, then it is best to wait out the bad weather between low trees with lush crowns (follow all the rules described above). Experienced tourists noticed that if lightning strikes the forest (although this happens quite rarely), it usually hits oaks, elms and poplars, less often into pine or spruce, and even less often, damage damages birches and maples.

It is most dangerous to catch a thunderstorm on top of a mountain, on a ridge, a pass or on hills. It is also dangerous at this time to be near the crevices.

Fans of mountain tourism in case of thunderstorms are trying to wait out the bad weather near a vertical plumb line whose height is at least 5-6 times higher than a man’s height. It is important not to approach the cliff closer than 2 meters. All metal items from mountaineering equipment at the time of thunderstorms need to be lowered on the rope down the cliff at least 20 m.

If lightning did hit a person, remember: no popular methods will help. On the contrary, so only precious time is lost. The most correct thing to do in this case is to call an ambulance or immediately take the person to the hospital.

Dehydration

It is easier in the summer than to get dehydrated at any other time of the year. In the hot season during the day you need to drink at least 8-10 glasses of water. People who are sweating very much, including due to increased physical exertion, need to increase the daily portion of water in summer.

Even mild dehydration can make you feel worse. Against the background of dehydration, a person becomes sluggish, gets tired quickly, he has memory problems. Inadequate fluid intake in summer is very dangerous for people with high blood pressure. In addition, water deficiency increases the risk of kidney stones.

Poisoning

Statistics indicate that most cases of infectious diseases occur in the summer, when the weather facilitates the rapid reproduction of pathogens. The danger of infection lurks travelers in the water and in food.

In warm weather, almost all food spoils quite quickly, so in order to avoid poisoning, it is better to use freshly prepared dishes. A sandwich with sausage or baked meat after 2-3 hours in the sun turns into a source of pathogenic bacteria. The same can be said about the beloved grilled chicken, salads with mayonnaise, pastries with creams.

No less dangerous in the summer and the water in open water. In warm weather, it is literally teeming with different types of bacteria. Doctors prohibit drinking raw water from water bodies, and parents should be careful to ensure that the child, swimming in a lake, river or pool, does not swallow water.

In addition, before each meal you should thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water. In the summer, we all sweat and pathogens multiply in our hands. If they get on food, it is possible to get poisoned or more serious intestinal disease.

ARVI

If you think that SARS happens only in autumn or winter, you are deeply mistaken. Summer is the time of rampant all types of microbes, so that a viral illness can go to bed even in hot weather. In addition, in summer it is very easy to pick up the most banal cold. This happens due to a sharp temperature drop. Remember how many times over the summer from a hot street you go into a cool room where air conditioners work. Many, in order to cool down even more, specially melt directly under the cooler.

Such temperature drops extremely badly affect the immune system, as a result, it gives up and becomes easy prey for microbes. In addition, in the summer it is very easy to catch a cold if swimming in very cold waters.Cool water perfectly refreshes the body heated by the sun, but at the same time it is the easiest way to make a cough or a runny nose in summer.

Hypertensive crisis

Hot weather is a serious threat to people with hypertension or other cardiovascular diseases. People with any heart diseases are undesirable to spend a lot of time in the heat, especially with high humidity. The most dangerous time for walking is from 11 to 16 hours. If during hot weather the core complains of feeling unwell, it increases blood pressure, slows or accelerates the pulse, nausea, dizziness or fever appears, call a doctor.

Eye hazard

Do you know that summer is perhaps the most dangerous time of the year for the eyes? However, this statement applies only to those who do not wear sunglasses. This is not just a fashion accessory. In the summer season, the sun is very active and ultraviolet radiation is very harmful to the eyes: they can cause severe ophthalmic diseases. Therefore, in order not to look for a good oculist in a few years, take care that this summer your eyes are protected by good glasses, whose glasses do not allow UV light to pass through.

For many, summer is their favorite season. But at the same time, if you do not follow certain rules, the summer season can also become the most dangerous. Do not ignore the advice of experts, and then leave will be remembered only pleasant impressions.

Article author:
Furmanova Elena Alexandrovna

Specialty: pediatrician, infectious diseases specialist, allergist-immunologist.

Total experience: 7 years.

Education: 2010, SSMU, pediatric, pediatrics.

Experience infectious diseases more than 3 years.

He has a patent on the topic “A method for predicting a high risk of the formation of a chronic pathology of the adeno-tonsillar system in frequently ill children”. As well as the author of publications in the journals of the Higher Attestation Commission.

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