Analysis of microflora by smear is a study that allows you to identify bacteria and microbes that are the causative agents of serious diseases and pathological processes. A smear on the flora allows you to detect the presence of bacteria, microbes, fungi and other microorganisms in the human body. He can also be analyzed for microflora and find out the variety and genus of microorganisms, as well as methods of dealing with them, since certain organisms are more sensitive to certain groups of antibiotics and drugs.
What are the types of microflora smear tests?
A smear microflora analysis is a laboratory test that is prescribed in gynecology to all women, without exception. The resulting sample from the mucous membrane of the cervix, vagina and urethra is sent to the laboratory for the study.
Direct indications for the purpose of manipulation are: cystitis; pain in the lower abdomen; genital itching; burning during intimacy; unpleasant discharge from the uterus; allergies and irritations in the area of intimate organs; antibiotics for more than 3 days. Be sure to pass the analysis on the microflora of women planning pregnancy. With an increased risk of infection with infections and diseases that are transmitted during intimacy, bacterioscopy is also recommended.
Men also sometimes need to pass a smear microflora analysis. The biomaterial is collected by a urologist or venereologist. For analysis, you need scraping from the urethra, a small amount of sperm and the secret of the prostate gland. The need for testing can be related to: unpleasant discharge from the urethra; pain during urination; constant desire to empty; suspected male infertility.
An analysis of microflora by ear swab is prescribed: for internal, secondary and external inflammation; the formation of pus in the tympanic cavity; partial or complete hearing loss. The doctor takes a sample from the mucous membrane of the organ of hearing.
A swab from the nasopharynx is taken from the mucous membrane of the pharynx and nose. The ENT prescribe this study if the patient has a diagnosis: tonsillitis; purulent formations on the tonsils; mononucleosis; rhinitis; tuberculosis; pharyngitis; sinusitis; stenotic laryngotracheitis; acute respiratory viral infection; diphtheria; whooping cough. If the patient often has a stuffy nose or abundant discharge from the nasal cavity is observed, then the specialist must direct him to take an analysis.
Analysis of microflora smear in gynecology
Analysis of the microflora in gynecology is called bacterial culture. If the patient observes the rules of preparation for the analysis, his results will be reliable and informative. The study is conducted only in the case when the patient does not go monthly. The optimal time for smear delivery to the microflora is 5-6 days of the menstrual cycle.
A few days before the manipulation, a woman should not: enter into intimacy with a man; douching; bathe in the bathroom; use lubricants; use gels for personal hygiene. On the day of bacterial inoculation, a woman should not wash intimate organs, and refrain from urinating a few hours before the procedure.
The collection of biomaterial for research in patients is made from the mucous membrane in three different places. A gynecologist during an examination on a gynecological chair scrapes samples with a medical spatula. Then the resulting material is smeared on a sterile piece of glass. On the reverse side of the glass is written with special alphabetic values from where the biomaterial was taken. Next, the glass pieces are sent to the laboratory to analyze the sample on the state of the microflora.
Men should also prepare for the procedure. Important preparation rules:
- 3-4 days before the manipulation, sex with women is not recommended;
- before taking a smear, you need to wash and conduct hygiene procedures of intimate organs 6-8 hours before the manipulation;
- 3-4 hours before admission to the urologist is prohibited to empty the bladder;
- one week before the diagnosis, medication should be canceled (it is advisable to first consult with your doctor).
The duration of the procedure varies from 1.5 to 3 minutes. The urologist slowly introduces a special probe into the urethra to a depth of 4 to 6 centimeters, then it is removed. During the removal of the probe, the specialist makes rotational movements in order to collect more biomaterial. Also, the patient may additionally pass the semen for analysis on the microflora.
Analysis of microflora on nasopharyngeal swabs and ears
If you prepare for an examination incorrectly, the analysis may give a false negative result. When taking a smear from the throat, you can not drink and eat food several hours before the start of the study. It is forbidden to use sprays, rinses, toothpaste and other cleaning agents 2-3 days before the procedure, as they reduce the real number of microbes on the mucous membrane. It is not recommended to use antimicrobial drugs or strong antibiotics. The sample is completely painless and takes no more than 5 minutes.
The sample is taken with a cotton tip, which the specialist introduces to the patient in the oral cavity. Biomaterial must be taken from several parts of the pharynx for a more informative result. Manipulation is painless, but can cause a gag reflex. Next, the stick with the material is placed in a special container and sent for diagnosis.
In order for the results of the analysis of microflora from the nose to be correct, before manipulation 2-3 days before its start, you need to temporarily abandon the use of ointments, drops and sprays for the nasal cavity. If medicines contain antibiotics, they should be discontinued without fail. The material is collected with an elongated cotton swab. Then the scraping is spread evenly on the glass piece.
Analysis of the microflora of the ears allows us to determine what exactly provoked the occurrence of otitis media and other diseases of the hearing organ. The doctor takes a swab with a cotton swab and also distributes the material on a glass slide. Next, the glass is marked, and it is recorded from where a certain sample was taken.
Normal performance and deviations from them
A smear analysis of microflora for women is inexpensive, therefore it is available for each patient. According to the results of the study, the gynecologist can diagnose: bacterial vaginosis; thrush; inflammatory processes caused by trichomoniasis or gonorrhea; various types of vaginitis.
The form will indicate a certain number of white blood cells (there should be no more than 10 in the urethra and no more than 30 in the cervix), squamous epithelium (no more than ten), lactobacilli (occupy up to 90% of the entire microflora), yeast (no more than 104 measurement units ), trichomonads (if there are a lot of them, then the patient has thrush, chlamydia or bacterial vaginosis), cocci and gonococci. During the bearing of a child, some of the values can be increased several times - this is considered normal.
In men, with a smear on the microflora, the urologist can identify: prostatitis; mycoplasmosis; chlamydia ureaplasmosis; trichomoniasis; gonorrhea; urethritis and other diseases of the sexual sphere. The form will contain information on the number of leukocytes (normal value no more than 5), epithelial cells (no more than 10), gonococci (if they are detected, then the man will be diagnosed with gonorrhea), cocci (in large numbers they indicate urethritis).
An ear swab gives the specialist information about the number of opportunistic microorganisms such as enterococci, streptococci and staphylococci, fungi. A normal indicator is considered to be no more than 104 measuring units. Examination of a smear from the nasopharynx reveals the following microorganisms: pneumococci; meningococci; listeria; microbes; haemophilus sticks; streptococci. Their number should not exceed 140 CFU / ml.
Analysis of microflora by smear is a simple and reliable method for diagnosing serious diseases. The study is very informative in the case when its decoding is correct and done without errors. When determining the causative agent of the disease, the doctor can make a diagnosis and prescribe therapy that will prevent the transition of the disease to the chronic stage.