Bloody vomiting is a nonspecific symptom that indicates internal blood loss. A bleeding center can open in any part of the body after a mechanical injury, damage to mucous membranes, infectious, inflammatory or oncological diseases. The victim must be given first aid and sent to a medical facility as soon as possible, otherwise the outcome may be fatal. What you need to know about bloody vomiting and can it be prevented?
Mechanism and nature of vomiting
Vomiting - a reflex eruption of the contents of the stomach (less commonly the duodenum) through the mouth. Sometimes the amount of vomit is so large that they exit through the nasopharynx. The mechanism of vomiting is quite simple. It is due to contraction of the abdominal muscles and the simultaneous closure of part of the stomach. First, the body of the organ relaxes, then the opening of the entrance to the stomach occurs. The entire gastrointestinal tract reacts to changes in work and prepares for the release of vomit. Once the vomiting center located in the medulla oblongata receives the necessary signal, the esophagus and oral cavity expand, followed by an eruption of food / body fluids.
The field of medicine that studies vomiting and nausea is called emetology.
How to recognize vomiting? A few hours or minutes before the eruption of vomit, a person feels nausea, rapid breathing, involuntary swallowing movements, increased secretion of tears and saliva. Vomit consists not only of food debris that has not been fully absorbed by the body, but also of gastric juice, mucus, bile, and less commonly pus and blood.
Possible causes of development
The most common cause of vomiting is food / alcohol / drug / drug poisoning. The mechanism of eruption of the contents of the stomach can also work with a number of infections, irritation of the abdominal cavity, inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes the body itself releases dangerous substances outward or ceases to function normally under the influence of strong psychological stress / disorders of the nervous system.
If blood is detected in the vomit, then bleeding has developed in one of the departments of the body. Even if you notice one small blood clot, you should immediately consult a doctor. The amount of erupted blood may not correspond to the real state of affairs. The only thing to be guided by is the shade and structure of the biological fluid. Bright scarlet blood indicates profuse "fresh" bleeding, but clots of dark crimson blood indicate a small but prolonged amount of blood loss. Upon contact with gastric juice, blood coagulates and acquires a dark shade.
Vomiting with blood poses a serious threat to human health. As soon as you notice a symptom, call an ambulance and do it yourself / ask someone to provide first aid.
What diseases does vomiting with blood develop?
Blood vomiting may indicate:
- mechanical damage to the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, throat, other internal organ or cavity ;;
- varicose veins of the esophagus;
- ulcer, cirrhosis, acute gastritis;
- oncological diseases, regardless of the nature;
- alcohol poisoning;
- the use of medications that adversely affect the mucous membrane of the internal organs;
- pregnancy (bloody vomiting is a danger to both the mother and the baby).
How to give first aid?
Make sure that the vomit contains blood, not stained foods. Often the patient can take the chocolate eaten the day before for clots of brown blood and make a lot of premature diagnoses. Another false reason to worry is getting into the vomit of blood from the nose or mouth. It is possible that a vessel burst in the nasal passages or just recently a tooth was removed, in the place of which a bloody wound remained.
You can stop bleeding from the nose / oral cavity yourself. If you do not know what to do or the volumes of blood released look frightening, consult a doctor.
The main thing is to act quickly and judiciously. Call the ambulance team, calm the patient and lay him on a flat surface. Raise your legs slightly or rotate the person on their side. Focus on his condition and comfort, if possible - go to the hospital yourself. Periodically monitor the pulse / pressure and record the results so that you can pass them on to the doctor later. Provide unrestricted access to drinking water. Help him take a few sips to avoid dehydration.
In no case do not leave the victim unattended. If an attack of vomiting has found you alone - ask relatives or neighbors to be around until the ambulance arrives. Vomiting can resume at any moment, which is fraught with total weakening, loss of consciousness, during which the patient simply drowns. If you witness an attack - do not try to give the victim medication without a doctor's prescription. Do not force a person to eat, or artificially induce another attack of vomiting in order to completely cleanse the body. The best thing you can do is get the victim to the hospital as soon as possible.
Do not rely on a case or self-healing. Failure to see a doctor can cost your life, so do not risk your health and strictly follow the instructions of a specialist.
Treatment and Prevention
Vomiting with blood is a symptom, not a complete disease. The doctor must determine the root cause of the symptom, and then proceed to neutralize it. Before starting the diagnosis, the condition of the victim should be normalized. Doctors compensate for fluid loss, normalize blood pressure and perform the necessary manipulations. Among them are blood transfusion, oxygen supply, monitoring of the general condition, identification of the lesion and neutralization of bleeding, surgical intervention and so on.
It is almost impossible to prevent vomiting with blood. If you are in a risk zone or are aware of a predisposition to certain pathologies, discuss with your doctor a plan of action and strictly follow it during an attack. In other cases - call an ambulance and wait for qualified medical assistance. The main thing - do not try to eliminate vomiting yourself, do not panic and notify loved ones about their health.