One of the most popular foods of modern man has long been sausage. This delicacy has a lot of advantages and disadvantages, so before you buy a sausage, you need to know for yourself exactly whether it will not become unnecessary in the diet of a particular person.
The traditional recipe for sausage is the mixing of minced meat with spices, fat and salt and placing this mixture in the intestine or its substitute. Those who invented sausages in their time simply invented the bicycle in the culinary business, as with the help of this delicacy it became possible to quickly and tasty set the table for any occasion, and the storage of meat products was extended many times over. Today, there are many types of sausages, which, unfortunately, are not always of high quality.
For the first time, sausage was written in Greek, Babylonian and Chinese annals dated 500 BC. Homer later described them in his Odyssey, and Epicharm even had a written comedy called Sausage. However, all this is not evidence that the Greeks were the progenitors of modern meat delicacies, they just wrote down their recipes first and therefore remained in history.
The ancient Romans also fell in love with this delicacy, because with its help it became possible to store meat products in the heat for a long time. The Romans stuffed cleaned guts with minced meat, salted it, added spices and hung the product in the shade so that it could wither.
It was also from there that the tradition of smoking sausage over the fire started, because it was cooked in such a way that it could be kept much longer and, moreover, was safer in terms of sanitary standards, since all microorganisms, midges and other insects that could live in meat.
At different historical times, the sausage recipe, although changing, has always remained very complex, with a large number of ingredients and technological aspects of cooking. In addition, the product was originally expensive, because in ancient times, the culinary specialists used the best varieties of various meats (even dolphin meat), Madeira, expensive brandy, nuts and Indian spices to prepare a delicacy.
There were many legends about the product, which made it even more expensive and more desirable for ordinary people who do not have the opportunity to enjoy it. In the Middle Ages, Europeans in the north learned how to cook sausage from raw meat, which was then dried for a long time using smoke. But basturma appeared, thanks to the possibility of Europeans in the south to dry raw meat in direct sun.
The most developed producers of meat products in Europe at all times were Germans and Austrians, who today produce very many types and varieties of all kinds of meat delicacies, famous all over the world for their taste.
The name "sausage" has many legends describing the origin of this product, and which one is closer to the truth is a mystery. It is known that consonant words are in Turkic, German, French, and Hebrew. Back in the 12th century, sausage was mentioned in ancient Russian letters, but then, until the 17th century, historians did not find any mention of this product in Russia. Only in the 17th century, when immigrants from Germany opened sausage workshops on the territory of Russia, this product again firmly entered the life of Slavic peoples.
By the beginning of the 20th century there were about 2500 sausage shops and factories on the territory of the Russian Empire. In Soviet times, another type of previously unknown sausage was invented - boiled sausage. Thus, for example, Doktorskaya became an experimental food product in the 30s of the 20th century, in which there was an increased content of pork, a tender structure and this product was prepared without the use of smoking.
Such sausage was intended for medical institutions and people with low levels of health.
After the Second World War, this meat product became even more popular, but its quality year after year fell very severely and reached a critical level in the 80s.
Types of modern meat products
In modern sausage business there are several main types of this product.
Boiled. This is the cheapest and very common type of product, which has a short shelf life and the most dietary composition, compared with other representatives of sausages. In this product there is up to 15% protein, up to 30% fat, its caloric content is 220-300 kilocalories. In the "boiled" less meat, but more water, additives, soy protein. The stuffing for such a product is light pink, uniform, very tender. Cooked sausage is prepared using pasteurization at a temperature of 80 degrees and further two-stage cooling.
Cooked smoked. Unlike "boiled eggs", such a product is prepared by pasteurization followed by smoking. The caloric content of such a product is 350-420 calories, it contains up to 17% protein and up to 40% fat. In the stuffing there is a wide variety of additives - flour, milk, fat, starch, water, cream, and the shelf life of such a product is 2 weeks.
Smoked. In the manufacture of half-smoked sausage, ice water is introduced into the mince, additionally cooling the composition, kept the loaf at a temperature of 0 degrees for about 6 hours and only then smoked. In the half-smoked product can contain up to 17% of protein and up to 40% of fat, and calorie content reaches 400 kilocalories. This product is stored for 15 days.
Smoked (smoked). This is quite fatty (up to 55% of fat in the composition) sausage with a high calorie content of about 550 kilocalories. She kept month. It is made using cognac and spices, minced meat must ripen for 10 days, and then the finished sausage matures for about 40 days and smoked at a smoke temperature reaching 25 degrees. The product contains about 30% protein.
Dried It is stored for a very long time, prepared from the highest quality meat and a variety of spices and additives - honey, brandy, garlic, cumin. The finished product dries in a natural way, without an additional source of heat or smoking. This product contains 35% protein, 40% fat and up to 470 kilocalories.
Livernaya. Sausage, which is made from offal, eggs, vegetables and other additives. It has the consistency of pasta and not very tasty grayish color of the loaf. The energy value of liver products, depending on their composition, can vary from 194 to 444 kilocalories. Such sausages are stored from 3 to 30 days.
In the production of sausages, several technological processes can be applied, depending on the variety and type of product obtained. The main points of the production process are:
- the deboning process or the separation of animal carcasses and the separation of bones and meat to obtain minced meat;
- habitation, that is, sorting the meat component into fat and non-fat, as well as the distribution of the semifinished product by grade - first grade, second and so on;
- the process of stuffing, when the ingredients are successively mixed to produce one or another minced meat, and then they are ground using sausage cutters;
- the process of forming the product or filling the shells for the product with stuffing using special syringes followed by sealing the ends of the shell with a clipper;
- the process of precipitation, implying the aging of the loaves at low temperatures until the beginning of the heat treatment, according to the technology of production of a specific product
- Heat treatment includes drying, roasting, smoking or boiling sausages in heat chambers, as well as chopping or cooling the finished product.
It is important to remember that the shell for the product is of great importance in the production of sausage. Sausage casings are divided into artificial and natural, permeable and barrier.
Barrier skins serve to increase the shelf life of finished products and are more often used for boiled sausages.
Permeable shells help to penetrate heat during the subsequent heat treatment of the product. So, polyamide casings are barrier, and cellulose, collagen and textile casings are experts refer to as permeable artificial. All sorts of nutritional supplements are used in the product to prevent microorganisms from multiplying in minced meat, as color, taste and weight gain improvers, and they are not always allowed, useful or safe.
Differences of varieties of finished products
The grade of meat used to produce sausage depends on the percentage of muscle or connective tissue in it. The higher the variety of sausage purchased, the higher the variety of meat from which it is produced, and the less the components listed above are contained in this meat.
Despite the fact that the connective tissue of meat is also a protein, it is heavily absorbed by the human body and is worse digested. The nutritional value of connective tissue is low, it is very much in such products as brawn, liver, aspic.
To date, such sausages are divided as:
- top grade products;
- first grade products;
- barren sausages;
- second grade products.
Only liver and blood sausages are ungraded, the rest can be represented in any of the above varieties. At the same time, any sausage of the same variety can have a different price, since the producers reserve the right to choose the ingredients, the quality of the casing and much more, which will ultimately lead to an increase or decrease in price. It is most logical to buy expensive sausage, wanting to get the most high-quality and delicious product on your table.
Today, among boiled sausages, there is another kind of sausage - extra grade.
These are high-quality products of traditional recipe with a high content of protein (and, therefore, more valuable in their energy properties). Extra food must not contain various food additives, with the exception of sodium nitrite and phosphates. Also in this sausage should be low in fat and soy and carrageenans should be absent.
The benefits and harm of the finished product
Is there a good sausage? This question can be answered in the affirmative in the context of the fact that any sausage is largely composed of protein, which means that it is a source of energy for the human body. But this state of affairs can be violated by the manufacturers not observing the standards by which this delicacy is prepared.
Recently, more and more natural ingredients in sausage products are being replaced with artificial ones, many food additives are added to the product, which improve the perception of sausage visually and in taste, but significantly reduce its absorption by the human body.
Among the main health problems that can arise from the abuse of sausage, experts call obesity, because such products are very high in calories, problems with the gastrointestinal tract and liver, because this product is hard digested by the body, and its fatty component affects the liver in a wrong way.
In the presence of pancreatitis, ulcers, cholecystitis, gout, cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, hypertensive and urolithiasis, sausage consumption should be minimized, and it is better to completely eliminate it from the diet.
When choosing a quality sausage, you need to know a few simple rules. For example, to find out if there is starch in the composition of the product, it can be dipped into iodine at home, and if the sausage turns blue, it is full of starch.
Also, when a slice of sausage is rolled into a tube, a product where there is a lot of starch will break or crumble, and if it passes this test, the manufacturer has not added any extra ingredients to the recipe.
Among the various additives in the production of sausages, there are those without which such production is in principle impossible. For example, sodium nitrite or E-250 blocks the growth of pathogens in the mincemeat of botulism.
Also, this ingredient acts as a color stabilizer for the finished product. But manufacturers add phosphates to the sausage in order to retain a large amount of moisture.
This powdery substance can give weight to the finished product without increasing the proportion of meat ingredients in the composition. Thus, producers at the price of meat sell water to consumers.
In general, consumers buying sausages should remember the basic facts about this product. Thus, the whole sausage is divided into meat, meat-containing and meat-and-cereal, in which in addition to meat there is also soy or cereal. There are no varieties of meat-containing products.
Eggs, milk, soy isolates, carrots, cereals, sea kale, animal proteins are among the main additives permitted by standards in production. When buying sausage in a natural casing, it is important to know that it is stored significantly less than its counterparts in artificial casing.
Despite the fact that sausage is the sales leader among finished products all over the world, various holidays are devoted to it in many countries, for example, Kolbasiad in Serbia or sausage fights in England, home cooking of sausage is considered to be the most useful and quality.
The first to cook the sausage began the Chinese, who even before our era did and ate veal and lamb sausage.
To date, their secrets of cooking this product is in different countries of the world. In Germany in Düsseldorf sausage is made in the thinnest golden casing. This delicacy is recognized as the most expensive in the world among its fellows.
However, many manufacturers in the modern world are trying to cash in on consumers, and the quality and taste characteristics of a product suffer. That is why homemade sausage cooking is so popular even in the 21st century, when you can buy in the store, it seems, absolutely any product.
At home you can cook absolutely any sausage - both boiled and smoked. Next will be considered a recipe for cooking dietary cooked sausage, which will amaze with its taste and quality.
Among the ingredients of a home product of such a plan will be mandatory:
- 800 grams of chicken fillet;
- 150 grams of lean pork;
- 2 cloves of garlic;
- 0.5 cup of cream and milk;
- tablespoon of potato starch;
- beet juice;
- salt and spices to taste.
Garlic is peeled and ground using a blender along with chicken fillet. Next, spices and salt are poured into the ground mixture, and pork is cut into cubes. Everything mixes well, milk or cream, beet juice and starch are added and mixed thoroughly again.
To give the product a shape, the stuffing is laid out in a sleeve for baking, rolled up and fixed edges. Next, the semi-finished product is laid out in a container with cold water and brought to a boil, then the fire is reduced and the sausage is cooked for about 50 minutes. Cool the product without removing it from the sleeve.
It is easy to cook other types of sausages at home, the main thing is to follow the recipe and use only high-quality meat, and then the taste of home-made sausage will forever discourage the desire to buy a finished product stuffed with chemicals.