Sodium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, baking soda are the names of the same chemical compound, known to everyone as "baking soda". It is a good baking powder for the test. Soda solution can relieve toothache. But this is not the whole spectrum of application of this “miracle” substance. In fact, it is difficult to manage without sodium bicarbonate in everyday life, in cooking, in medicine, and in many other areas of activity.
History of creation
Baking soda in breadmaking has been used since antiquity. It was found by archaeologists during the excavation of caves of the 1st-2nd centuries BC. Then it was mined from seaweed ash or found in the form of a mineral. This chemical compound is actively used in ancient Egypt.
For the first time, the chemical formula of the compound - NaHCO3- was established by the French scientist Henri de Monceau. Thanks to this discovery, baking soda began to be produced synthetically, which significantly reduced the cost of its cost and expanded the range of uses. Since the discovery of the formula, the methods of its synthesis have been constantly changing, improving, becoming more economically viable.
Ways to get
The first method of industrial production of sodium carbonate was the dissolution of rock salt in water, mixing the solution with limestone and charcoal, and then heating in a furnace. However, as it turned out, they did not receive soda, but soda ash. In addition, as a result of this activity, a lot of toxic waste (calcium sulfide and hydrogen chloride) remained, so it was quickly abandoned.
Today, baking soda is produced in two ways - "dry" and "wet", each of which is based on the carbonation reaction (carbon dioxide enrichment of the solution).
Types of soda
From the chemical point of view and the field of application, there are several types of soda: food (drinking), soda (linen) and caustic (sodium hydroxide).
Sodium bicarbonate is a weak acid salt of carbonic acid. It is a small, colorless crystals, which, when the temperature rises to 50-60 ° C, begin to "give up" a carbon dioxide molecule, gradually decomposing to sodium carbonate (soda ash).
Reacts with acids to form salts (chloride, acetate, sodium sulfate) and carbonic acid, which instantly decomposes into water and carbon dioxide. The powder is poorly soluble in water and is easily separated by filtration.
The use of sodium bicarbonate due to its alkaline pH. It is the ability to react with acids and alkalize the environment that underlies such useful properties of baking soda as:
- thinning sputum;
- emollient and whitening skin.
Such a multitude of useful properties makes it possible to use this compound in folk and traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases and the normalization of human well-being in various pathological and physiological states.
Baking soda should be consumed inside in limited quantities and according to strict indications. Large quantities of bicarbonate crystals are toxic to the mucous membranes of the digestive organs and can cause severe irritation and allergic reactions.
It is not recommended to use solutions based on sodium bicarbonate for people suffering from erosive and ulcerative processes of the stomach and intestines, low acidity of the stomach and anacid gastritis.
With regular inhalation of carbon dioxide vapors or bicarbonate crystals, for example, in the production of soda, irritation of the respiratory mucosa can occur.
Frequent use of soda solution threatens with persistent organic disorders of the digestive system. Alkalisation of gastric juice occurs, as well as a shift to the strongly alkaline side of the intestinal contents.
Sodium bicarbonate is widely used in medicine. At the same time, soda is used in its different fields: dermatology, gastroenterology, cardiology, pulmonology, dentistry, toxicology, and otolaryngology. Helps sodium bicarbonate from heartburn, nausea, motion sickness.
This substance is used internally in the form of a soda drink and externally in dry form, in the form of a paste or an aqueous solution for rubbing, lotions, baths.
Rinsing with sodium bicarbonate solution of the oral cavity relieves local inflammation, relieves toothache, strengthens the gums, eliminates unpleasant odor. Soda can be used as a substitute for toothpaste for teeth whitening.
When nausea make a strong soda solution (1 st. Spoon per glass of water) and slowly drink it. With strong heartburn, it is recommended to dissolve a teaspoon of soda in a glass of water and drink. Thus, for some time the condition of patients improves. However, it should be noted that with frequent heartburn should consult a doctor, and not treated with soda at home. The habitual flow of alkaline solution causes a neutralization reaction between hydrochloric acid and soda, resulting in a lot of carbon dioxide emitted, which causes swelling. The formation of carbon dioxide irritates the chemoreceptors of the stomach, thereby stimulating the reflex enhancement of the formation of gastric juice.
Bicarbonate baths contribute to the normalization of blood pressure and heartbeat, which is useful when interruptions in the work of the heart and blood vessels. Soda helps to increase urination, which reduces the total circulating blood volume. As a result, the pressure of the blood column on the walls of blood vessels decreases and blood pressure drops slightly.
Receiving a solution of sodium bicarbonate inside with a sharp increase in blood pressure is a means of first aid for hypertensive crisis at home. If you drink a soda drink with antihypertensive drugs, it potentiates their effect.
Soap and soda baths and applications help get rid of fungal nail infections, as well as corns and corns. Paste from baking soda and water should be used to treat skin burns when exposed to acids, as well as skin areas with sunburn. It is necessary to moisten with water and soda dissolved in it. Bites of mosquitoes and other insects on the skin. In case of severe itching, you can sprinkle the skin with dry powder.
If you have problems with the smell of sweat, soda solution should be treated armpit. Bacteria and fungi that multiply in sweat produce acids that cause an unpleasant odor. Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes these acids and exhibits a moderate antiseptic effect.
Foot baths based on bicarbonate are made with fungal diseases of the feet and nails. They also help soften the rough skin of the heels in front of a pedicure. Hot baths from a strong solution of baking soda help with felon (purulent inflammation under the nail).
With ENT pathologies
Sodium bicarbonate when injected into viscous sputum, reacts with the acids contained in it. The resulting bubbles of carbon dioxide and water liquefy the sputum, increase its quantity and facilitate coughing.
For the preparation of an expectorant with tracheitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, as well as with a strong cough, a teaspoon of baking soda is diluted in 200 ml of warm milk. This elixir is drunk before bedtime. Instead of such a drink, you can do steam inhalation with soda. A tablespoon of powder is diluted in a liter of hot water and breathe over it. To enhance the effect, a few drops of eucalyptus, pine or rosemary essential oils can be added to the solution. Rinses of the throat with a solution of salt and soda relieve inflammation of the tonsils in the tonsillitis.
Intravenous administration of a sterile aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate is often used in resuscitation, infectious diseases, and toxicology for poisoning and intoxication. metabolic acidosis.
Use in cooking
The use of sodium bicarbonate and in cooking is multifaceted. The ability of soda when quenching with vinegar to emit carbon dioxide allows it to be used as a disintegrant. Slaked soda gives pomp to omelette, dough. It is possible to quench the soda with vinegar or add the powder to sour cream or kefir dough. In the second case, lactic acid will play the role of vinegar.
Adding it to dishes from legumes can reduce their cooking time. If you use soda in the marinade for meat, you can soften the hard muscle fibers. Berry and fruit mousses when added to them a pinch of soda becomes sweeter, and coffee and tea - more transparent and fragrant.
In order to get rid of nitrates in vegetables, they need to soak in soda solution. Darkened potatoes can be clarified in the same way.
Use in the household
Indispensable substance in everyday life. It is an excellent cleaning agent. Chrome-plated items and silver to restore their shine are rubbed with dry soda, washed with soapy water, and then wiped dry with a soft cloth.
Sodium bicarbonate powder applied to a wetted sponge removes scratches and scuffs on vinyl floor coverings. Tiles, stoves, sinks and sanitary ware can be cleaned of contamination by processing a thick mixture of soda and water. The same mixture helps to get rid of the specific feline smell in places where there were "tags".
To remove odors
Good hygroscopicity of sodium bicarbonate is the reason that it absorbs aromas quickly, so it can be used to eliminate various odors. To get rid of unpleasant odors in the refrigerator, you need to pour dry powder in a glass and put it in the door of the refrigerator. Changing the contents of the glass as needed (once every 1-2 months), you can permanently get rid of the specific "refrigeration" smell.
With a persistent smell of sour milk, "smelling" containers should be cleaned with dry powder. Similarly, do with dishes that have the smell of fish.
If you pour a few tablespoons of powder into the drain hole, and after a few minutes turn on warm water, you can remove the unpleasant smell from the siphon under the sink.
Drinking soda will help to cope with the unpleasant smell of the carpet. To do this, sprinkle the carpet powder, leave for 20-30 minutes, and then carefully vacuumed. However, this method is only suitable for non-decaying carpets.
Using baking soda, you can also prevent unpleasant odors, for example, from a washing machine or dishwasher when they are idle for a long time. When leaving the house for a long time, you should rub the inner surface of the machines with a dry bicarbonate and leave their doors ajar, and after returning to run them in rinsing mode.
For clothing care
During the machine wash it will be good to add soda to the laundry detergent. This will help get rid of the unpleasant smell in the washing machine, improve the quality of washing and the scent of the washed laundry. Unpleasant-smelling clothes can be washed in a typewriter, abundantly sprinkled with soda.
A wet swimsuit does not become moldy and will not smell unpleasant if, after swimming in a pool or in a natural reservoir, it is folded into a bag of soda, and thoroughly rinsed and dried at home.
Use in cosmetology
Soda is an excellent cosmetic. A good scrub and whitening effect has a scrub made from crushed oat flakes and dry sodium bicarbonate. The skin after such a scrub becomes soft, and its regular use eliminates acne. To give the hair shine after washing their heads need to be treated with a solution of soda and lemon juice.
Sodium bicarbonate is also used for weight loss. To lose up to 2 kg in one procedure, you can fill the bath with warm water and dissolve in it 0.5 kg of sea salt and 0.3 kg of ordinary drinking soda. Losing weight should plunge into such a bath for 20 minutes. The temperature of the water should be around 40 ° C. Soda-saline relaxes the muscles, relieves fatigue and nervous tension, cleans the lymphatic vessels, reduces swelling of tissues. After the bathroom should not be wiped: just put on a warm bathrobe. It is better to do such water procedures before bedtime.
Soda is indispensable in the campaigns. She can:
- wash dishes without harming the environment;
- replace toothpaste;
- put out the fire;
- smear the skin in places of insect bites.
You can get rid of the unpleasant smell of shoes if you rub it with dry soda from the inside or wet it with soda solution. A mixture of sodium bicarbonate and sugar destroys cockroaches.
Use in industry
Drinking soda as a food additive E500 uses the food industry in the manufacture of bakery, flour, confectionery, sausages, carbonated drinks, as well as for cleaning industrial equipment.
The chemical industry uses sodium bicarbonate in the production of dyes, reagents, household chemicals, foams. Bicarbonate fill powder extinguishers.
In light industry, soda is used in leather production, for the manufacture of artificial leather, silk and cotton fabrics.
How to choose and store
Sodium bicarbonate should be stored in closed packs, so as not to accumulate foreign odors. Before buying, shake a pack of soda. If fine dust falls from it, it is a sign of product staleness and partial disintegration of the compound inside the pack. Houses should immediately pour the powder into an airtight container.
Soda should be stored in a dry ventilated area, away from strongly smelling products. Storage temperature is not limited, but you need to remember that the higher it is, the faster the product loses its properties. The warranty period of storage is 12 months, but if the soda was stored correctly and has not lost its reactivity, its shelf life is not limited.
You can check the reactivity of the bicarbonate in a simple way: when quenching a pinch of soda with vinegar, foam will form from the gas bubbles.
By expanding the range of use of soda in the household, each housewife can save her budget and discover a lot of environmentally friendly and hypoallergenic products for cleaning, washing and much more.