Molybdenum is a mineral that is present in the gray matter of the brain, zones of taste, smell, vision, and all tissues, organs of the human body.
The name of the element in Greek means "lead." This is due to the fact that molybdenum has been confused with this metal for a long time.
The compound is extracted from molybdenite - a mineral that in appearance resembles graphite and has a characteristic lead luster. It is interesting that only at the end of the 18th century a scientist from Sweden K. Scheele, after treating molybdenum ore with concentrated nitric acid, was able to establish that the metal obtained is a completely different substance. During the reaction, a white mass formed, which the Swedish chemist calcined and received a new chemical element.
In its pure form, molybdenum was discovered in 1817 by the Swedish chemist J. Berzelius by reducing hydrogen oxide. In nature, a mineral without impurities is not found.
Refined molybdenum is a soft silver-colored metal with a slight sheen. In the human body, it is not the trace element itself that is present, but its compounds, which, when interacting with sulfur, are absorbed into the blood and spread to tissues and organs. The largest amount of molybdenum is concentrated in the liver, kidneys, thyroid gland, and brain. As part of enzymes, it acts as a cofactor, contributing to detoxification of the body. In addition, the element is necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system, activates the exchange of sulfur-containing amino acids, keeps fluoride in the bones, strengthens tooth enamel, protects it from destruction.
The human body contains nine milligrams of molybdenum. The daily need for compounds for adults varies from 75 to 250 micrograms, for people over 75 years of age, its consumption should be reduced to 200 micrograms.
Indications for the intake of molybdenum in excess of the daily norm: tachycardia, male infertility, neoplasms in the brain, caries, impotence, visual impairment.
Food molybdenum is readily absorbed in the stomach and small intestine in the form of soluble complexes. The absorption level of the compound supplied with food reaches 80%. After entering the body, the trace element binds to proteins (in particular, with albumin), then it is transported to tissues, cells of all organs.
In the blood, the mineral is distributed in equal proportions between plasma, shaped elements. Excretion of soluble molybdenum compounds occurs with urine, feces, and bile.
"Health Watch" or the biological role of molybdenum
The physiological significance of the trace element for humans was first confirmed in 1953 after the discovery of the effect of the compound on the activity of the xanthine oxidase enzyme, which is responsible for the purine metabolism in the body.
The functions of molybdenum.
- Improves the accumulation of nitrogen, enhances the synthesis of amino acids.
- It is part of the enzymes that regulate the exchange of uric acid, thereby preventing the development of gout. Xanthine oxidase accelerates the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthines, sulfitoxidase - sulfite to sulfate, aldehyde oxidase oxidizes, neutralizes pteridins, purines, pyrimidines.
- It removes toxic substances from the body that come as a result of taking alcoholic beverages, smoking, inhaling harmful fumes in industrial enterprises.
- Participates in the pancreas, the regulation of reproductive function (stops the development of impotence), the processes of respiration, the production of hemoglobin, the synthesis of ascorbic acid.
- Protects the body from inflammatory reactions.
- It has an antioxidant effect (inhibits the oxidation of cells).
- Prevents the appearance and progression of malignant tumors.
- Prevents the development of dysbiosis, anemia, caries.
- Improves the absorption of iron by the body.
- Increases the phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes.
- It stimulates growth, which is especially important for children and adolescents.
Remember, taking tungsten, lead, sodium reduces the digestibility of molybdenum, while copper sulfate enhances the excretion of the compound with bile. Deficiency of copper, iron, on the contrary, increases the level of trace elements in the body.
Lack of molybdenum and how to deal with it
Molybdenum deficiency is a rare phenomenon that can develop as a result:
- prolonged intravenous nutrition in patients with gastrointestinal disorders or in intensive care;
- strict unbalanced vegetarian diet;
- disturbances in normal absorption from the intestines;
- exposure to stressful situations when there is an increased need of the body for sulfitoxidase;
- excess tungsten in the body.
Symptoms of a lack of mineral in the body:
- irritability, nervousness;
- increased heart rate (tachycardia);
- a decrease in the activity of enzymes that include molybdenum;
- decreased visual acuity, inability to see objects in twilight lighting.
The consequences of compound failure:
- violation of the normal development of the brain, cysteine metabolism, nitrogen base metabolism;
- increased risk of esophageal cancer;
- mental retardation;
- decreased excretion of inorganic sulfates, uric acid;
- visual impairment;
- inadequate excretion of inorganic sulfate substances;
- inhibition of methionine catabolism;
- the formation of xanthine kidney stones;
- excessive accumulation of copper, which can lead to intoxication of the body;
- decreased growth rate, breakdown of cellulose.
Symptoms and consequences of a deficiency can be eliminated after adding molybdenum to the daily diet. It is recommended to focus on the following foods rich in this microelement: legumes, leafy vegetables, liver, kidneys, cattle brains, dairy products.
Chronic deficiency of molybdenum is compensated for by the use of dietary supplements, drugs. These include the following vitamin-mineral complexes containing the element: "Stay Healthy", "Centuri 2000", "Vitrum", "MultiMax", "Gerimax Energy", "Centrum", "Alphabet", "Duovit" and the radioactive isotope " Molybdenum-99 ", designed for diagnostic procedures, treatment of cancer.
Assessment of the mineral content in the body is carried out according to the results of the study of hair and blood. Normally, the level of molybdenum in the strands is in the range from 0.02 to 2 micrograms per gram, in the bloodstream - 0.3 - 1.2 micrograms per liter. With insufficient intake, the concentration of the compound in the urine, plasma, hair decreases. In addition, the activity of erythrocyte xanthine oxidase decreases, the level of ceruloplasmin in blood serum, copper in urine.
"A lot is not always good" or an overdose of molybdenum
This mineral is relatively non-toxic. The signs and consequences of excess molybdenum in the body are manifested when 10,000 micrograms of the compound are consumed per day. The lethal dose for humans is 50,000 micrograms.
Causes of poisoning with molybdenum compounds:
- inhalation of powder or pure metal under industrial conditions;
- excessive intake of compounds with water, food additives, food, drugs;
- the scarcity of the diet on copper.
There are practically no cases of acute overdose of the body with a mineral, and chronic poisoning has similar symptoms to a condition that develops with a deficiency of the compound in the body.
Signs of excess:
- accumulation of nitrogenous toxins in the blood;
- malfunctions of the fertilization process;
- the development of anemia, leukopenia, gout, uraturia;
- growth retardation;
- irritation of the mucous membranes;
- increased xanthine oxidase activity;
- skin pigmentation;
- weight loss;
- deposition of salts in the joints;
- an increase in uric acid in the urine.
In case of symptoms of an overdose, consult a doctor immediately, since the consequences of untimely stopping the poisoning center can pose a threat to the life of the victim.
Molybdenum: where to look for it
The amount of trace elements in products of plant origin (vegetables, fruits, cereals) depends on the soil where they germinated. The greatest amount of molybdenum is concentrated in legumes, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, carrots, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, and garlic. Among the sources of animal compounds can be identified lean meats, milk, offal.
|product name||The amount of mineral in 100 grams of product, micrograms|
|Cold smoked fish, horse mackerel||26|
|Brains, heart beef||18|
|Sprats in oil||11|
Remember, molybdenum compounds are lost when thawing meat in water, long cooking vegetables in a peeled form. By including baking, offal, cereals, dairy products in your daily diet, you can easily provide the body with the right level of mineral.
Thus, molybdenum is a trace element of youth and beauty. It provides high-quality detoxification of the body, strengthens bone tissue, activates metabolism, which is especially valuable for people who want to lose weight. A regular intake of the compound in sufficient quantities (75 - 250 milligrams) contributes to the optimal functioning of the internal organs.