Water-soluble vitamins are a group of useful substances whose biochemical properties allow them to completely dissolve in the aquatic environment.
Vitamins are a complex of chemical-organic substances that the human body cannot synthesize on its own and needs to be replenished from food. The lack leads to metabolic disorders.
All known vitamins are divided into two groups: fat-and water-soluble. There are more water-soluble substances and the functions assigned to them by nature are also greater.
Chemical and biological properties of the group
Water-soluble vitamins include substances that are beneficial to the human body and share common characteristics. The first of which is the ability to dissolve in water. This feature was the reason for this name of the vitamin group.
Properties of water-soluble substances:
- drugs are easy to drink with water, they do not require additional components for assimilation;
- easily absorbed into the blood from the intestines;
- they are not able to create a “depot” in the tissues of the body, are rapidly excreted from it (do not linger in the tissues for longer than a day);
- should be regularly replenished in the body (found in most plant and animal foods);
- an overdose of water-soluble substances does not lead to impaired body functions;
- excreted in the urine;
- possess antioxidant properties;
- enhance the effect of other vitamin substances;
- lack of water-soluble substances leads to a decrease in the biological activity of fat-soluble;
- oversupply does not affect the human body fatally.
Water soluble vitamins how many of you?
Water-soluble vitamins are a complex of substances, most of which are B-group. These include:
- B1 (thiamine) - anti-neuritis;
- B2 (riboflavin) - necessary for hematopoiesis, energy metabolism;
- B3 (nicotinic acid, vitamin PP) - antipellargic;
- B5 (pantothenic acid) - necessary for the health of nails, hair;
- B6 (pyridoxine) - protects against dermatitis;
- B9 (folic acid) - against anemia, is necessary for pregnant women, is responsible for the development of the fetus;
- B12 (cyanocobalamin) - is responsible for the metabolism process;
- C (ascorbic acid) - an antioxidant, strengthens blood vessels, promotes the absorption of iron, is good for acute respiratory viral infections;
- H or B7 (biotin) - is responsible for the health of the intestines, skin, hair.
Why do you need it?
The cause of many diseases is vitamin deficiency. For example, rickets develops with a small amount of D-substance, scurvy - when there is not enough ascorbic acid, Beri-Bury fever - a consequence of B1-deficiency, pellagra - a deficiency of niacin. In many countries, they managed to get rid of the epidemics of these terrible diseases with the help of vitamins. In addition, modern medicine is increasingly paying attention to trace element complexes when it comes to the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, infectious diseases, and respiratory problems.
The best safe sources of water-soluble elements are fruits and vegetables. Plant foods, as a rule, contain many flavins and carotenoids; almost all B vitamins are present (with the exception of B12 and folic acid).
Fat-soluble and water-soluble substances: what is the difference
The main difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble substances is that they are not able to stay in the body for a long time. And non-observance of a balanced diet for even a short time will cause hypovitaminosis. But fortunately, representatives of the water-soluble group are in many foods.
Another plus of these nutrients is their low toxicity. It is almost impossible to poison with vitamins that dissolve in water, since they do not accumulate in the tissues and are quickly excreted from the body as part of urine. Only some of them, taken in especially high doses, can provoke allergic reactions. These factors make it possible to call water-soluble substances the safest of the vitamin "family".
The most important for a person from the whole group are ascorbic acid and vitamins of group B. Although it is impossible to reduce the beneficial properties of other water-soluble substances.
Ascorbic acid is the most common form of vitamin C. It is present in many foods and in all pharmaceutical complexes. Meanwhile, it is an extremely unstable vitamin. Its structure is quickly broken under the influence of oxygen, sunlight and high temperatures (during heat treatment it is lost almost completely). Ascorbine does not tolerate alcohol, birth control pills, steroids.
Vitamin C is needed for the synthesis of collagen, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, promotes the transformation of cholesterol into bile acid and increases the bioavailability of iron. The main functional role of ascorbic acid makes it one of the favorite vitamins for bodybuilders, as it ultimately gives energy, strength and helps build muscle.
Our grandmothers also taught that vitamin C is the best remedy for colds and many other diseases, which has strong life-giving properties. Biochemists agree with this and call ascorbic acid the strongest antioxidant.
Ascorbic acid is necessary for the healthy development of cells, the proper absorption of calcium, the normal growth and regeneration of damaged tissues, including for the rapid healing of wounds. In addition, it strengthens capillaries, improves immunity, protects the body from infections, and promotes proper blood coagulation. These white crystals in powder with an acidic taste are one of the favorite preparations of adults and children.
The daily "portion" of vitamin C is from 120 mg to 2 g, in some cases reaches 5 g.
Ascorbic deficiency is the reason for poor healing of wounds, bleeding gums, swelling, weakness, lack of energy. Inadequate intake of C-substance dramatically reduces the body's ability to absorb protein.
It is combined with B3 and other elements of the group, calcium, magnesium, protein.
Sources: citrus fruits, leafy vegetables, berries, tomatoes, melons, papaya.
Vitamin B Complex
Group B substances have many similar functions, and in the past they were generally considered one vitamin. And although in the human body B-elements work as a single team, but at the same time, each of them plays an important role.
A few days of malnutrition are enough to "earn" hypovitaminosis B1. But to restore the balance of this substance is also easy - it will take only a few days. And when a “shock dose” is introduced into the body, hypovitaminosis will disappear within a few hours.
The advantage of thiamine is in the ability to enhance blood circulation and promote the supply of oxygen to cells, which increases energy, regulates the absorption of carbohydrates, and helps to form the correct blood composition. B1 is also necessary for maintaining the health of the nervous system, eliminating the tendency to depression, and improving memory.
B1 deficiency is manifested in irritability, chronic fatigue, constipation, edema, hyperemia of the liver, memory impairment, impaired heart function, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, improper coordination of movements, numbness of the limbs, and weight loss.
Dosages: it is not recommended to consume more than 1.5 grams of vitamin B1 per day. The standard dosage is within 50 mg, for athletes it is permissible to increase to 100 mg.
Well compatible with carbohydrates, vitamin C.
Sources: sunflower seeds, yolk, liver, pork, seafood, beans, peanuts, seaweed, mushrooms.
One of the most nutritious substances for the body, although, like other water-soluble trace elements, it is rapidly excreted from the body. In its pure form, it is a yellow-orange powder that tastes bitter.
The role of riboflavin in the body in many ways resembles the function of B1. In addition, it is absolutely necessary for children during development (hence the other name for the substance - growth factor), contributes to the improvement of hair and skin. Improves vision, in particular color perception. Easily destroyed in the sun.
Signs of B2 deficiency: cracks in the corners of the mouth, eye diseases, inflammation of the mucous membranes, sleep and digestion disorders, hair loss, dizziness, and growth retardation in children.
The daily norm of B2 is 1.8 mg, in some cases it is possible to increase the dose to 50 mg per day.
It is well compatible with other B vitamins, especially B6, antioxidants, and iron.
Sources: lean meat, dairy products, leafy vegetables, fish, nuts, cereals.
Niacin helps the health of the nervous system and adrenal glands, improves the secretion of the stomach and gall bladder, affects the health of the skin, improves memory.
At the cellular level, it facilitates metabolic processes and the supply of oxygen to cells, and reduces the supply of "bad" cholesterol. A link has also been established between vitamin B3 and the production of sex hormones. Sunlight and oxygen lead to the rapid destruction of nicotines.
B3 deficiency can occur in pellagra, ulcers, headaches and fatigue, depression, indigestion, insomnia, and dermatitis.
For proper operation, the body requires about 20 mg of vitamin B3 daily, in some cases, you can increase the dosage to 100 mg per day.
It goes well with elements of the B-complex, creatine, proteins.
Excellent sources of matter: liver, poultry and rabbit meat, milk, fish, nuts, cereals.
Pantothenic acid, or as it is often called anti-stress vitamin, promotes the production of hormones responsible for a good mood. It supports the proper functioning of the adrenal glands and the nervous system, affects the metabolism of fatty acids, which in turn helps to lose weight.
The "strengths" of B5 also include the ability to strengthen the immune system, relieve allergies, improve skin condition.
Pantothenic acid does not tolerate exposure to an acidic or alkaline environment. This means that during cooking, it is better not to add lemon juice, vinegar or soda to the dishes.
B5 deficiency is manifested in symptoms such as: fatigue and muscle weakness, cramps, depression, headache, discomfort in the abdomen.
The daily rate of B5 is not defined, since in a healthy body the substance is synthesized in sufficient quantities in the intestine. In exceptional cases, the additional use of vitamin ranges from 10 mg (depending on the level of hypovitaminosis).
It goes well with potassium and protein foods.
Sources: brewer's yeast, eggs, nuts, sea fish, whole grains, beef, pork, raw vegetables.
Pyridoxine is one of the most significant vitamins for maintaining mental and physical health. Strengthens the immune system, promotes the growth of new cells and metabolic processes in the body. Prevents the appearance of dandruff, psoriasis, eczema.
It is necessary for children in the period of increased mental activity. In treatment programs it is used as a means for liver detoxification. Affects the secretion of the stomach, increasing its acidity. Vitamin B6 relieves pain during menstruation and from nausea during pregnancy, regulates the hormonal background in the female body.
The sun's rays adversely affect vitamin B6. To maintain the maximum amount of nutrients, it is advisable to eat vegetables raw.
Deficiency leads to fatty liver hepatosis, weakness, irritability, insomnia, osteoporosis, arthritis, skin and nail diseases. Symptoms of B6 deficiency are very reminiscent of signs of vitamin B3 deficiency.
Nutritionists recommend taking about 2 mg of B6 daily. A dose in excess of 2 g, toxic to the body.
It is well compatible with vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc.
Sources: kidneys, liver, chicken, eggs, walnuts, sprouted wheat, peas, carrots, yeast.
Unlike other vitamins, folic acid is able to linger in the body - it creates its own "depot" in the liver tissue, and is also worse than other substances in the group, it dissolves in water.
The main role of vitamin B9 is DNA synthesis, the effect on cell growth, the formation of red blood cells and white blood cells. Provides the body with energy. The intestines play an important role in maintaining the balance of vitamin B9 in the body - malfunctions in the work of the organ lead to hypovitaminosis, which eventually turns into anemia.
Like Vitamin B6, folic acid is important for maintaining a healthy female body. B9 is detrimental to tobacco smoke. Also, the vitamin is afraid of heat and light.
A lack of folic acid is fraught with the development of chronic fatigue, the appearance of acne, leads to anemia and osteoporosis. Symptoms of a lack of folic acid can be frequent digestive disorders, anxiety, and depression.
The minimum daily requirement is 400 mcg of substance.
It goes well with proteins, vitamins C, B6, B12.
Examples of foods rich in folic acid: green and starchy vegetables, fruits, liver, legumes.
This vitamin from the B family is often used as an appetite stimulant and energy enhancer. It takes part in the formation of red blood cells, fights infections and allergies. B12 is useful for children as a vitamin that promotes growth.
Vegetarians most often suffer from hypovitaminosis, as the only source of the substance is animal products. It does not tolerate high temperatures and bright light.
B12 deficiency often causes Alzheimer's disease, disorders in the brain and nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases.
Consumption: daily minimum dose of vitamin B12 is 3 mcg, the maximum dose is 30 mcg per day.
It goes well with calcium, potassium, sodium, iron and vitamin C.
The main sources of the substance, as already noted, are products of animal origin. The most saturated with vitamin: liver, offal, shellfish, cheese, fish, dairy.
Biotin, despite the unusual definition of vitamin H, is also a representative of group B. Another name for the substance is vitamin B8. The biological role in the human body is the formation of red blood cells, the effect on cell growth, participation in metabolic processes. It supports healthy hair, protects the skin from premature aging, strengthens bone marrow and nerve tissue.
Vitamin H is involved in more than 40 enzymatic processes in the human body. Crystals of pure biotin dissolve well in water, are quite stable before exposure to acid, alkali and high temperature.
Biotin deficiency is a rare phenomenon, accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, increased cholesterol, loss of appetite, hair loss.
The usual daily intake of vitamin is 300 mcg.
It goes well with vitamins B5 and B9.
Sources of biotin are most often called veal liver, broccoli, yeast, salmon, spinach, cheese, mushrooms, nuts.
|Substance name||Body functions||Sources|
|B1 (thiamine)||A participant in enzymatic processes, necessary for energy metabolism, supports the functioning of the nervous system.||Pork, whole grains, cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds.|
|B2 (riboflavin)||A participant in enzymatic processes, necessary for energy metabolism, is necessary for normal vision and healthy skin.||Dairy products, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, cereals.|
|B3 (nicotinic acid)||A participant in enzymatic processes, necessary for energy metabolism, is important for the nervous and digestive systems, supports skin health.||Meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, cereals, green leafy vegetables, mushrooms, peanuts.|
|B5 (pantothenic acid)||A participant in enzymatic processes is essential for energy metabolism.||In most products.|
|H (B8) (Biotin)||A participant in enzymatic processes is essential for energy metabolism.||In most foods, it is synthesized in the intestines.|
|B6 (pyridoxine)||A participant in enzymatic processes, necessary for protein metabolism, promotes the formation of red blood cells.||Meat, fish, vegetables, fruits.|
|B9 (folic acid)||A participant in the enzymatic processes necessary for the formation of DNA, new cells, red blood cells.||Green leafy vegetables, seeds, orange juice, liver, whole grains.|
|AT 12||A participant in enzymatic processes, necessary for the creation of new cells, supports the function of the nervous system.||Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy products. Not in plant foods.|
|C (ascorbic acid)||Antioxidant, a participant in enzymatic processes, is necessary for protein metabolism, is important for maintaining the immune system.||Citrus fruits, different types of cabbage, melon, strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, papaya, mango, kiwi.|
|Vitamin||Daily rate||What products can I get|
|IN 1||1.2-2.5 mg||200 g pork|
|AT 2||1.5 mg||3 eggs|
|IN 3||5-10 mg||200 g lamb|
|AT 5||9-12 mg||200 g of beef|
|AT 6||2-3 mg||200 g of fresh corn or 250 g of beef|
|B8 (H)||0.15-0.2 mg||4 chicken yolks|
|AT 9||200 mcg||A few lettuce leaves or parsley|
|AT 12||3 mcg||200 g carp|
|WITH||50-100 mg||200 g of strawberries or 100 g of bell pepper|
Pharmacological compatibility of water soluble vitamins
- The first and most important rule - it is forbidden to mix different vitamins in one syringe.
- You can not combine in one injection of B1 with B6, B12, C, PP, tetracycline, hydrocortisone, salicylates.
- B1 is incompatible with solutions that contain sulfites.
- The combination of B1, B6, B12 affects the absorption of vitamins.
- B2 and B12 are incompatible.
- B6 is not compatible with B1, B12, caffeine and aminophylline. It is not used for peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum. Fast intravenous administration of the drug causes seizures.
- B12 cannot be combined with B1, B2, B6, C, PP, acetylsalicylic or hydrochloric acid, chlorpromazine, gentamicin. Use with caution in angina pectoris, malignant and benign formations.
- B9 is not combined with sulfonamides. Cautiously taken by people in old age, as well as prone to cancer.
- C is not mixed with B1, B12, aminophylline, tetracycline, dibazole, salicylates, diphenhydramine, iron, heparin, penicillin.
- Do not mix ascorbic acid and analgin in the same syringe.
How to save in products
As already mentioned, water-soluble vitamins are found in almost all vegetables. Of course, to maximize the preservation of the beneficial composition, it is advisable to eat plant food without heat treatment. But, of course, this is not always possible. So really, lunch can not be tasty and healthy at the same time? In fact, if you cook the vegetables correctly, then there is a chance to preserve the required amount of nutrients, and at the same time, improper storage can completely deprive vitamins and raw food. Do not know how to avoid this - read the tips tested in practice by many housewives.
- Speed. Cooking should be done quickly - the longer the vegetables heat-treat, the less vitamins remain in them.
- Temperature. Food prepared using lower temperatures retains more vitamin composition. As an example: if you cook beef at 220 degrees, then almost 55% of vitamin B1 will be destroyed, and only 30% of thiamine will be destroyed by a temperature of 150 degrees Celsius.
- Shine. Vegetables containing water-soluble vitamins should be stored in dark rooms. During cooking, they should also be covered with a lid and stop the access of oxygen to them (it destroys most of the useful substances).
- Freshness. For cooking, it is advisable to use the freshest products - they contain a large amount of vitamins, which means that after heat treatment they will also remain more. It is advisable to give preference to seasonal vegetables and fruits grown in your climate zone - a significant part of the nutrients is lost during transportation.
- Water. When cooking vegetables, try to use as little water as possible and not pierce the vegetables with a knife (for example, when potatoes are cooked “in their skins”). The liquid should only slightly cover the surface of vegetables. After cooking, do not leave vegetables in the broth - immediately drain the water. For cooking beans, you can use a vegetable broth or a decoction after cooking rice. Thus, vitamins B and other beneficial substances boiled from cereals, "go" to the beans.
- Double boiler. Whenever possible, use steam instead of water. Products cooked in a double boiler retain 50 percent more nutrients than boiled in water.
- Frying. This method kills 90 percent of vitamin C, and it’s worth remembering the dangers of overcooked vegetable oil.
- Canning. This cooking method is known to every housewife. Labor-intensive, requires a lot of time and effort. But there is essentially no benefit from it. Canning almost completely destroys all water-soluble vitamins in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, it is difficult to say what canned food has in food ...
- Storage. Do not store vegetables for a long time. Potatoes six months after harvest lose more than 40% of vitamin C. In greens, on the second day only half of ascorbic acid remains.
- The right choice of vegetables. If vegetables have to be cooked, it is better to give preference to small specimens - they will cook faster and retain more vitamin.
- Proper cooking. Do not soak the vegetables before cooking in water, but cook in a peel, do not cut into pieces, but cook the whole vegetable. This trick allows you to save 20% more vitamin C. Pour vegetables with boiling water and salt as soon as possible (salt “sucks” water-soluble vitamins from products). When cooking vegetables, add a few milligrams of lemon juice or vinegar to the water - this will save vitamin C.
These simple tips are quite effective. Adhering to them, you can without any extra effort make dinner more nutritious, tastier and more fortified.
The lack of one or another vitamin affects not only well-being, but also affects the appearance. Ever wondered why in some people even hair turns gray faster and wrinkles appear quite quickly, while others manage to maintain a youthful appearance until they are old? The answer, as always, is simple up to the banality - vitamins. These beneficial substances will play an important role in the metabolism at the cellular level, and this has important physiological significance for the body. The mechanism of action of vitamins for the preservation of beauty for many years primarily consists in the regular supply of oxygen to cells, and, as you know, it is life itself. So let's look at which vitamins are most important for beauty at any age and the lack of substances that weak nails and split ends signal.
B vitamins - used for inflammation on the skin, cracks, hair loss.
- B1 - accelerates hair growth, relieves acne;
- B2 - treats acne, heals microcracks;
- B3 (nicotinic acid, PP) - keeps the skin supple, improves its color, eliminates peeling;
- B5 - relieves dermatitis, inflammation on the lips;
- B8 (biotin, H) - soothes inflammation on the skin, has nutritional properties (necessary for facial skin and hair);
- B9 (folic acid) - provides the skin with a healthy color, prevents hair graying;
- B12 - an excellent remedy for hair loss, seborrhea, blackheads;
- C (ascorbic acid) - “building material” for collagen fibers, protects the skin from early aging, pallor, prevents the appearance of spider veins, treats acne and brittle nails.
Have you noticed at least one of the described symptoms? Make sure that more products containing vitamins B and C appear on the roofing, and then you do not have to beat the thresholds of dermatologists and trichologists in search of tips on how to graze your nails, hair and restore your skin to its former smoothness.
In general, it is important to remember vitamins in food not when doctors diagnose a lack of nutrients in the body.
The right and wholesome food should be remembered daily, and regularly adhere to the recommendations of nutritionists. Well, they say the truth, it’s easier to prevent a disease than to treat complications after it. And vitamins are an ideal prevention against all health troubles.