Cholecalciferol or D3 is a fat-soluble substance formed in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet rays, which combines with vitamin D-binding protein and is subsequently transported to the liver and kidneys through the blood.
The structural formula of the compound is C27H44O.
Cholecalciferol is a white crystalline powder, easily oxidized, low stability to light, soluble in vegetable oils, chloroform, alcohol, ether, insoluble in water. Melting point reaches 83 degrees, boiling point - 496.4.
Vitamin D3 is a unique nutrient that acts as a hormone. Active substances, in particular, calcitriol, are formed from cholecalciferol. The compound stimulates the absorption of calcium, phosphorus in the small intestine, enhances their reverse absorption in the renal tubules.
Consider a cholecalciferol recipe in Latin, what do you need D3 for, what does it contain, indications, contraindications for use, symptoms of shortage and hypervitaminosis.
The value of vitamin D3 for the body
The main task of cholecalciferol is to ensure bone growth. Insufficient intake of vitamin (especially in the children's body) contributes to the development of a serious disease - rickets, which often leads to irreversible changes, namely, deformation of bone structures.
Treatment depends on the nature, severity of the disease and is based on D - vitamin therapy.
After entering the body, cholecalciferol is absorbed in the small intestine, providing the optimal level of phosphorus, calcium directly in the blood plasma. Thus, with the regular intake of vitamin compounds with food and the production of substances by skin cells, joints, bones, and cartilage tissue are strengthened.
The hormone is 1,25-dioxycholecalciferol, which is a decay product of D3. The compound accumulates in muscle fibers, kidneys. After entering the intestines, it stimulates the production of protein necessary for transporting calcium to teeth and bones.
Other beneficial properties of cholecalciferol:
- improves erection and potency in men, thyroid gland activity, concentration of attention;
- increases muscle elasticity, endurance and permeability of mitochondrial membranes of the intestinal epithelium;
- strengthens the immune system;
- participates in the synthesis of insulin;
- stimulates collagen production;
- burns adipose tissue, contributing to weight loss;
- prevents heart disease;
- prevents the formation of cholesterol plaques;
- enhances the processes of ossification, hair growth;
- improves the condition of the skin, maintaining a normal metabolism in the epithelial cells;
- prevents the appearance of cancerous tumors;
- regulates blood coagulation.
Preparations containing vitamin D3 are recommended for use by children from birth (infants) for the proper formation of bone tissue, as well as people living in adverse climatic conditions (contaminated regions, cities with short daylight hours).
The daily dosage of cholecalciferol is:
- for babies and infants up to 1 year old - 400 international units (10 micrograms);
- for children from 1 to 10 years - 600 international units (15 micrograms);
- for adolescents under 18 years of age, as well as adults, pregnant, lactating - 650 international units (16.25 micrograms);
- for older people (over 65 years) - 800 international units (20 micrograms).
How many years to take and how to give vitamin D3?
To build and update bone tissue, cholecalciferol in the human body is needed at any age. In order to fully cover the daily nutrient requirement, it is important to spend at least 90 minutes daily in the sun with bare parts of the body (arms, legs, back), eat foods containing a beneficial compound (usually of animal origin) or take active supplements during food.
To absorb a synthetic substance, when using a D3-containing preparation, it is important to eat a fatty product at the same time (for example, three grams of butter or five milliliters of vegetable oil).
The geography of your residence affects the body's need for vitamin D3: the closer to the north, the more cholecalciferol is needed. So, from the thirty-seventh parallel during the winter period, a person practically does not receive a useful compound from natural sunlight.
In addition, it is important to remember that people with dark skin synthesize vitamin worse, and as a result, to fill their daily needs, they better live closer to the equator.
According to scientists, sunscreens prevent the full production of nutrients in the upper layers of the epithelium. And the product, labeled SPF8, completely blocks the production of vitamin in the skin.
For diagnostic purposes, the content of cholecalciferol in the body, as a rule, is determined together with ergocalciferol and their serum produced. The total concentration of compounds normally ranges from one to two nanograms per milliliter.
Vitamin D3 for Newborns
Cholecalciferol is a "critically necessary" element for newborn babies, since it is involved in the metabolism of phosphorus and calcium - the main components for building cartilage and bone tissue. A lack of vitamin D3 in childhood leads to softening of the bones and a violation of the proper ontogenesis of the skeleton. In regions with low solar activity, the first symptoms of the disease are easy to miss, since curvature of the limbs is a sign of an already running form of the disorder.
Causes of bone abnormalities in children:
- birth in the winter season;
- pregnancy proceeding with complications;
- taking anticonvulsants;
- metabolic disorder in the baby;
- lack of sunlight.
If the child is at risk of developing rickets, to prevent the occurrence of bone abnormalities, you need to seek help from a pediatrician, who, based on the clinical picture, makes up a preventive regimen for taking vitamin D3.
In this case, for young mothers, it is important to clarify the symptoms indicating cholecalciferol deficiency in the baby.
Signs of D3 deficiency in infants:
- change in the shape of the chest;
- anxious sleep;
- late closure of the fontanel;
- deformation of the head (the appearance of bumps and bulges);
- muscle weakness;
- nervous excitability;
- lower limb curvature (dysplasia of the hip joints);
- atopic dermatitis (sometimes with signs of streptoderma).
Along with this, prolonged D3 - insufficiency in a child leads to a slowdown in teething and the formation of a malocclusion. When the first symptoms of pathologies are identified, treatment is immediately started, since untimely D3 therapy in infancy threatens complications in adulthood: arthritis, scoliosis, bent bones, flat feet.
Bone abnormalities, in 80% of cases, occur in babies who were born from October to May. In view of this, pediatricians, without waiting for the onset of signs of rickets, prescribe cholecalciferol preparations in small doses in the first year of life for babies. The daily nutrient rate is selected individually, depending on the condition of the baby, the presence of congenital abnormalities, the mother’s diet (for breast-fed children), the concentration of vitamin D3 in “complementary feeding” and the child’s sensitivity to it.
How many months have cholecalciferol been prescribed?
If the baby was born on time, vitamin D3 is taken from 3-4 weeks of life in a dosage of 500 international units (12.5 micrograms) per day (from October to May). For premature babies, the timing of D3 therapy is shifted to 7 - 10 days of life, which helps to accelerate ontogenesis of bone tissue. With a deficit of body weight, the daily portion of the nutrient reaches 1000 - 1500 international units (25 - 37.5 micrograms).
Preparations for babies
The main sources of cholecalciferol for newborns are breast milk and sunlight. If the child is on artificial feeding, in his body, vitamin D3 comes with milk formulas. However, the “adapted” formulations do not cover the baby’s daily nutritional requirements, since 80% of the children are mixed-fed.
The balance of cholecalciferol in the baby's body is determined by the pediatrician as a fontanel. If necessary, the doctor prescribes additional D3 therapy.
At the same time, it is important to use "vitamin" preparations with extreme caution, since an overdose threatens with demineralization of bone tissue and a violation of calcium metabolism in the intestine.
The optimal source of vitamin D3 for infants is a liquid solution (water or oil). The first type, due to the hypoallergenic formula and rapid absorption in the intestine, is used for "weak" newborns with abnormalities. At the same time, oil suspensions of the “new generation” are not inferior in effectiveness to previous additives. Which composition is better depends on the specific situation, the characteristics of the child's body.
Consider the popular vitamin D3 supplements:
- Videin is an antirachitic mixture of cholecalciferol with casein based on an oil suspension. Release form - tablets. One capsule contains 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 international units of vitamin D3. For infants, the tablet is pulverized and dissolved in milk. The drug is taken after meals (for 10 - 15 minutes) at the same time once a day.
- Aquadetrim is an aqueous solution of cholecalciferol. The drug is prescribed from 4 weeks of life, if the doctor has not moved the timing of admission. The concentration of the active substance in 1 drop is 500 international units, which corresponds to the daily norm for well-developing children. Premature infants are prescribed 2 to 3 drops of the solution per day. Before taking the medicine, it is dissolved in 5 milliliters of pure water. Aquadetrim is contraindicated in infants with a predisposition to early overgrowth of the fontanel against the background of the small size of the anterior temporal.
- Wigantol is an oily solution of vitamin D3. This tool is prescribed from the 2nd week of life. 1 drop of liquid contains 667 international units of cholecalciferol.
- Minisan. They are produced in the form of an oil suspension (for infants) and chewable tablets (for children from three years). A drop of liquid contains 100 international units of vitamin D3, and a dragee contains 400.
- Vitamin D3 Devisol is an oil-based solution. The recommended daily dosage of the substance is 5 drops, which totals 400 international units of cholecalciferol. This composition is not used in the presence of allergies or diathesis in crumbs.
- D3 Wit baby. The release form of the drug is capsules. Dragee contains 200 international units of vitamin D3. The product is used for the prevention and treatment of bone pathologies in children from birth to 3 years. At the same time, the capsule type of the drug raises a logical question for mothers: how to eat vitamin? To extract the nutrient from the pack, turn the special tip on the blister and tear it off. Then the contents of the capsule are squeezed into the baby’s mouth or mixed with breast milk. At the same time, it is important to ensure that the baby does not swallow dragees.
- Alpha D3-Teva. The composition is available in capsules containing 20, 40, 80 international units of alfacalcidol (a synthetic precursor of vitamin D3), oil drops and injectable solutions. This drug is prescribed for children over 6 years old, mainly with endocrine system dysfunctions.
If the baby has a lack of other vitamins and minerals against the background of D3 deficiency, then it is advisable to use multivitamin complexes as a source of cholecalciferol.
Let's consider some of them:
- Watering Baby. Drops are prescribed to the child at a dosage of 1 milliliter per day (400 international units of vitamin D3) directly with meals.
- Vidailin - M. Let out in the form of syrup for oral administration. 5 milliliters of solution contains 400 international units of cholecalciferol.
- Multi - Tabs Baby. The daily dose for the baby is 1 milliliter, which corresponds to 400 international units of vitamin D3.
Remember, the advisability of taking a multivitamin agent is important to discuss with a pediatrician.
Vitamin D3 Hypovitaminosis
Causes of cholecalciferol deficiency in the human body:
- lack of sunlight;
- violation of vitamin metabolism caused by liver and kidney disease;
- lack of vitamin D3 in the diet;
- poor absorption of the substance in the intestines.
The most serious consequences of a lack of calciferol in the body are: a decrease in the content of phosphorus, calcium in the blood and softening of bone tissue. As a result, people who are deficient in solar vitamin are more prone to fractures. In addition, the development of allergic conditions and frequent respiratory diseases are now associated with subclinical cholecalciferol deficiency.
Characteristic signs of vitamin D3 deficiency in the human body:
- sweating of the head;
- burning in the mouth;
- decreased bone mineral levels.
In addition to identifying the primary signs of hypovitaminosis, before proceeding with drug therapy, you need to take a blood test to determine the content of D3 in the body.
|The concentration of 25-OH vitamin D3, nanograms per milliliter||Conclusion|
|less than 5||Extremely severe hypovitaminosis|
|5 - 10||Severe deficit|
|10 - 20||Moderate failure|
|20 - 30||Close to optimal vitamin D3 intake|
|30 - 50||Norm|
|50 - 70||Vitamin D3 intake above the upper limit of normal|
|70 - 150||Overdose but not toxic|
|more than 150||Intoxication|
Deficiency of cholecalciferol in the body for a long time creates favorable conditions for the development of the following painful conditions:
- bronchial asthma;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- weak immunity;
Remember that you do not have to treat diseases associated with insufficient intake of vitamin in the body, you should not be allowed to develop D-hypovitaminosis. If the disease could not be prevented, you need to consult a doctor.
Please note: the illiterate and irrational use of the compound in high doses can lead to intoxication of the body and the development of serious consequences.
Self-medication is dangerous to your health!
Hypercalcemia and hypervitaminosis
With prolonged vitamin "cholecalciferol" therapy, hypercalcemia often occurs. As a rule, this condition occurs in the following cases: with the simultaneous excessive consumption of products that contain large amounts of calcium (dairy products) or as a result of the administration of high doses of the drug D3 for 2 to 3 months or more, which leads to an accumulation of 25 (OH) D3 in serum. Moreover, the concentration of the compound in the blood exceeds the norm by 5-10 times. After stopping cholecalciferol, a high level of 25 (OH) D3, due to accumulation in adipose and muscle tissues, lasts up to 90 days.
Hypercalcemia and an overdose of vitamin D3 occur with prolonged use of such active drugs: dihydrotachysterol, alfacalcidol, calciphediol, calcitriol.
Symptoms of hypervitaminosis:
- lack of appetite;
- intestinal colic;
- trouble breathing
- muscle pain, joints;
- slow heartbeat;
- muscle spasms;
- a sharp increase in pressure;
To eliminate excess cholecalciferol in the body, first of all, taking D-containing drugs is canceled and the use of calcium-rich foods is limited. Then, with severe hypercalcemia, glucocorticoids, in particular, prednisone, are found. How to take the substance? The drug is consumed for 14-21 days at 50 milligrams per day. With systematic administration, it has a glucocorticoid, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic effect. Corticosteroids block the effect of D3 on the bones and small intestine.
In no case can the symptoms of intoxication be ignored, otherwise an overdose of the compound in the body can lead to the development of the following complications:
- calcification of soft tissues, blood vessels, heart valves;
- the deposition of calcium salts in the heart, kidneys, intestines;
- the appearance of osteoporosis.
Indications and contraindications
An increased dosage of cholecalciferol is prescribed in the treatment of the following diseases:
- climatic period in women;
- pancreatitis at the stage of exacerbation;
- convulsive syndrome;
- tropical sprue;
- chronic gastritis;
- loss of calcium in the teeth, bone tissue;
- malabsorption syndrome;
- hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia;
- obstructive jaundice;
- liver failure;
- glutein enteropathy;
- Crohn's disease;
- persistent diarrhea.
In addition, the need for vitamin D3 increases with hypocalcemia, hypo- and vitamin deficiency, an unbalanced diet (raw food diet, vegetarianism), insufficient insolation, alcoholism, after surgery, during pregnancy, lactation.
Cholecalciferol is contraindicated in patients with calcium nephrourolithiasis, an active form of pulmonary tuberculosis, hypersensitivity to the drug, with prolonged immobilization, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, renal osteodystrophy with hyperphosphatemia.
On the "guard" of skin immunity
Skin is the first line of defense of an organism against viruses, bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms. At the same time, protective cells make up 95% of the dermis - keratinocytes involved in immune processes. These organoids have special "sensors" to respond to changes in microbial flora and to receive various signals from the outside. After skin lesions, the keratinocytes surrounding the wound increase the genetic coding of cells to create peptides and antimicrobial receptors. Vitamin D3 potentiates the ability of these "agents" to recognize pathogenic microorganisms, resulting in the formation of a protective clot. At the same time, keratinocytes and cholecalciferol create an almost impassable barrier to infection inside the skin. However, the full course of such reactions is possible only if there is a sufficient amount of vitamin D3 in the body.
Consider the mechanism of activation of cholecalciferol.
Natural nutrient production occurs in the deepest layers of the skin: spine-shaped (stratum spinosum) and germinal (stratum basale), containing the maximum concentration of compound 7 - dehydrocholesterol. This substance, absorbing ultraviolet radiation (type B) modifies the structure, as a result of which prohormone - vitamin D3 is synthesized. After this, cholecalciferol is transported to the liver to form the next form of vitamin D - calcidiol. When the microbial flora on the skin changes, the "sensors" transmit danger signals to the brain, as a result of which the component is transported from the liver to the kidneys, where it is converted to the active form, calcitriol.
After the final conversion, the “sunny” vitamin again enters the bloodstream, from where, using transport proteins, it is delivered to the organs. In regions with long winters, the natural production of prohormone slows down, provoking the development of D3 hypovitaminosis, and as a result, weakening of the innate immunity of the skin. Therefore, to maintain the barrier function of the dermis, it is advisable to take medicinal analogues of cholecalciferol. One of these drugs is topical calcipotriol (calcipotriene), which modulates the differentiation and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. This property of the substance is used to normalize inflammatory processes in the skin affected by psoriasis and vitiligo.
Vitamin D3, in addition to protecting the dermis, is involved in the processes of growth, regulation and replacement of dead skin cells. If a deficiency of this prohormone is present in the human body, a change in the structure of epidermal cells occurs. At the same time, the outer layers of the skin lose turgor, elasticity and strength, and in some of its areas dryness and parchment appear. In view of this, cholecalciferol is used in cosmetology as an external agent for strengthening and growing hair.
Vitamin D3, along with oral administration, is added to balms, shampoos and hair serums.
Mask for thick "hair" with vitamin D3
- olive oil - 5 milliliters;
- burdock oil - 5 milliliters;
- vitamin D3 (alfacalcidol) - 5 - 6 drops (half an ampoule).
These components are thoroughly mixed and applied to the root zone for 30 minutes. This mask eliminates excessive dryness of the skin, strengthens the hair follicles and gives dull hair extra shine. To obtain a lasting effect, the procedure is used 1 time per week.
Remember, it is important for every person to monitor the intake of vitamin D3 into the body, as it activates over 2,000 genes, which is 10% of the human genotype.
D3 therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease characterized by increased fragility of the bones against the background of extinction of ovarian function. In women during menopause, the natural production of estrogen decreases, as a result of which the production of cytokines (proteins of the acute phase of inflammation) increases and the activity of osteoclasts (cells of absorbable cartilage) increases. Such reactions lead to disruption of the "calciferol" metabolism of the kidneys, intense loss of bone tissue, and as a result, the development of osteoporosis.
This pathology is manifested by an imbalance of interrelated processes of repair and bone resorption. In addition, the pathogenesis of the disease is affected by age-related vitamin deficiency in the body and a decrease in affinity (strength of molecular bonds) of D-receptors for the “solar” nutrient in target organs. As a result of these reactions, the concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the blood increases, muscle strength decreases, the risk of traumatic falls and fractures of the extremities increases.
To prevent osteoporotic changes and preserve bone mineralization, people of mature age (from 50 years old) are prescribed prophylactic D3 therapy. In this case, it is advisable to use the prodrug form of cholecalciferol - alfacalcidol. This substance, when ingested, is converted into an active metabolite of vitamin D3 - calcitriol. Prohormone, bypassing endogenous regulation (without the participation of a renal enzyme), rapidly accumulates in the blood serum, as a result of which there is an improvement in the adsorption of phosphorus and calcium in the small intestine. If necessary, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone mobilize calcium ions from bone tissue and regulate its reabsorption in the kidneys.
Alfacalcidol treatment is used, first of all, as replacement therapy to eliminate D - deficient conditions of the body. At the same time, the ability of a vitamin to regulate metabolic processes in muscle tissue, the parathyroid gland, the brain and the immune system determines its therapeutic area of use as a hormonal agent.
Consider a detailed description of this drug.
Instructions for use alfacalcidol
Alfacalcidol stimulates the absorption of phosphorus and calcium in the intestine, activates bone metabolism, suppresses hyperfunction of the parathyroid gland, and potentiates the reabsorption of "building" substances in the kidneys.
Composition: in one tablet (capsule), contains 0.25, 0.5 or 1 micrograms of alfacalcidol, and in 1 milliliter of the solution - 0.5 micrograms.
Indications for use: osteoporosis (postmenopausal, juvenile, involutional), steroid osteopathies, renal tubular acidosis, D - resistant rickets, postoperative hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy, conditions requiring correction - calcium - phosphorus metabolism, de Toni Fibre disease holcalciferol (tetany, hypocalcemia), chronic renal failure, hypofunction of the parathyroid gland.
In addition, the drug is used to prevent renal osteodystrophy (with hemodialysis) and in rehabilitation therapy after kidney transplantation.
For the prevention of osteoporosis (senile, postmenopausal, steroidal), 0.5 to 1 micrograms of vitamin is used daily for 2 to 12 months.
In osteomalacia and D-deficient rickets caused by exogenous cholecalciferol deficiency, prolonged anticonvulsant therapy or digestive diseases, alfacalcidol is prescribed in a dosage of 1-3 micrograms per day.
The daily portion of vitamin D3 for patients suffering from hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome is 2-6 micrograms. With osteodystrophy, the daily dose of the drug is 0.07 - 2 micrograms. Children with rickets-like diseases are prescribed from 0.5 to 3 micrograms of the drug per day, depending on the body weight and age of the baby. For the treatment of osteomalacia and hypophosphatemic rickets, the daily dose of the drug is increased to 4 to 20 micrograms (under the supervision of a doctor).
Intensive D3 therapy is used in courses of 10 days with breaks of 2 weeks.
It is advisable to start taking alfacalcidol with minimal portions, controlling the level of calcium in the urine and blood (once a week). With a positive tolerance to the substance, the daily norm is increased by 0.25 - 0.5 micrograms until the biochemical parameters are stabilized, while continuing to control the concentration of calcium in the blood plasma (every 3 to 5 weeks).
For children with a body weight of up to 20 kilograms, the daily serving of vitamin is 0.01 - 0.05 micrograms per kilogram of the child’s weight.
With renal osteodystrophy, the therapeutic dosage varies from 0.04 to 0.08 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.
If there are signs of an overdose while taking alfacalcidol, the daily dosage of the drug is reduced until the symptoms of hypovitaminosis are eliminated.
Sources of Vitamin D3
Consider which foods contain cholecalciferol.
- Fish and products from it. The greatest amount of vitamin compound is in fish oil. To meet the daily needs of an adult (10 micrograms), you need to drink eight drops of this substance daily. Most fish oil is found in herring, sardine - 1.5 - 2.5 grams per 100 grams of product, salmon - 1.3 - 2.2, mackerel - 1.2 - 2.0, halibut - 0.8 - 1 4, tuna - 0.3 - 1.3 g; cod - 0.2 - 0.3. In 5 milligrams of cod liver, 125 grams of black caviar, 200 grams of red caviar, 150 grams of salmon fillet, 50 grams of sprat in oil, 850 grams of blue whiting fillet, the daily norm of cholecalciferol is “laid in.” Additional advantages fish - an abundance of fatty acids and vitamin A, which have a healing, strengthening effect on the human body. The disadvantage of products of this category include: fat content of products, high cholesterol, which poses a potential danger for the development of obesity, the occurrence of problems with blood vessels.
- Meat and offal. The tenderloin contains a small amount of useful compound (up to 0.2 micrograms per 100 grams of product), while in beef liver this indicator increases to 1.2, in mutton liver - to 1, in ram kidney - to 0.5. These products are rich not only in vitamin D3, but also in nutrients A, B, K. However, it is important to remember that using only meat and offal, it is extremely problematic to fully satisfy the body's need for cholecalciferol.
- Chicken eggs. One yolk contains 2 micrograms of cholecalciferol. In goose, quail, turkey eggs, D3 is also found, but in very small quantities.
- Milk products. 100 grams of ghee contains 1.8 micrograms of nutrient (560 grams are required to meet daily requirements), cream - 1.5 micrograms (670 grams), Dutch and Swiss cheese - 1 microgram (1000 grams). 100 grams / milliliter of fermented baked milk , cottage cheese, milk, kefir, the level of cholecalciferol ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 micrograms. Despite the fact that the content of the vitamin compound in these products is low, with the use of a large number of lactic acid products, the need for an adult organism for a substance can be half satisfied (5 micrograms).
- Mushrooms. 100 grams of grifol contains 63 micrograms of cholecalciferol (to "pay off" the daily norm D3, it is enough to eat 16 grams of product daily), chanterelles - 8.8 micrograms (130 grams), morels - 6.3 micrograms (150 grams), oyster mushroom - 2, 6 micrograms (400 grams). However, when buying, it is important to consider that the vitamin is produced in the fruiting bodies of only those mushrooms that are grown in the sun. If chanterelles, champignons, and oyster mushrooms developed on farms in "artificial" conditions, ergosterol in them does not turn into D3, as a result, they do not make up for the lack of nutrient in the body.
- Plant products (horsetail, nettle, alfalfa, parsley) - up to 0.01 micrograms of vitamin per 100 grams.
Thus, the largest amount of cholecalciferol is found in animal by-products (kidneys, liver) and in oily sea fish - blue whiting, haddock, cod, salmon, and the smallest - in vegetables, berries, fruits, herbs.
Due to the fact that vitamin D3 is resistant to heat treatment, after boiling and frying foods rich in a healthy compound, the loss of nutrient is 2–3%, which does not lead to a significant reduction in the substance in the finished dish.
Own "sunny" vitamin
When compiling a diet rich in vitamin D3, it is important to consider that the required amount of cholecalciferol for the human body is difficult to obtain solely from food. For example, it is not always possible to eat 850 grams of cod or 1000 grams of Swiss cheese daily. Therefore, remember, to cover the daily requirement, it is important to visit the sun more often, since the body is able to synthesize the compound in the skin on its own.
Exercising in the fresh air and a balanced diet are the perfect combination for the proper development and maintenance of bone and muscle tissue tone.
Consider what conditions should be observed so that the human body does not experience cholecalciferol deficiency all year round without being attached to the diet.
- Every day for 2 - 3 hours walk on the street.
- In late spring, summer, early autumn, keep as much of the skin as possible so that sunlight can freely penetrate the upper layers of the epithelium.
- To temper, to walk in the winter, when the body most acutely lacks a vitamin compound.
Remember, D3 is able to accumulate in adipose tissue, liver and be consumed in the cold season. From this, it follows that in order to have a supply of nutrient in the body for the next 3 to 6 months, it is enough to walk intensively daily in the summer on sunny days.
Differences between Vitamins D2 and D3
Consider the difference between ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol.
- Vitamin D2 is synthesized by mushrooms, plants. To provide the body with a useful compound, fruits, vegetables, freshly squeezed juices, milk, and cereals should be included in the daily menu.Unlike ergocalciferol, D3 the human body can produce independently under the influence of UV rays. In addition, nutrients contain animal products.
- Ergocalciferol regulates calcium-phosphorus metabolism, improving the absorption of trace elements, and contributes to their timely deposition in the bones. At the same time, cholecalciferol is involved in the transportation of minerals and affects the absorption of salts of phosphoric acid and calcium from the small intestine.
- After splitting D2 into several components, excess compound has a negative effect on the functioning of internal organs. During biochemical reactions, D3 transforms into calcitriol, which resists the development of cancer cells.
To saturate the body with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol, experts recommend using natural vitamin sources - products of plant and animal origin. It is recommended to use additives and synthetic substances as a last resort, for example, in the treatment of diseases or prolonged vitamin deficiency.
Preparations containing vitamins D2, D3, when stored for more than a year, partially lose their effectiveness (at least 50%). When saving and using them, it is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions.
Liquid release forms of cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3 is available in the following dosage forms:
- solution in oil for oral use;
- aqueous solution for oral administration;
- oil solution for injection.
Also cholecalciferol is made in dragees, capsules in various dosages.
When taken orally after ingestion, the compound is absorbed in the small intestine. An aqueous solution, unlike an oil solution, is absorbed much better. After the substance enters the lymphatic system, it penetrates the liver, and then into the blood, spreading throughout the body.
The form of release and the amount of vitamin intake per day is prescribed by the doctor, depending on the severity of hypovitaminosis and the presence of concomitant diseases.
Thus, cholecalciferol is a vital vitamin for the human body, which is involved in building bone tissue, affects the functioning of the immune and cardiovascular systems, and also protects the body from skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, and cancerous tumors.
Given the fact that D3 enhances the absorption of calcium in the intestine, an additional intake of nutrient (with drugs) can provoke a deficiency of iron in the blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen.